GIRARD L D


GIRARD L D
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.. 1815 /F - 28.5.1871 Seine River/F
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Louis-Dominique Girard was an autodidact. In his 1855 Note he realized the potential of fluvial hydropower. However, the turbines of then had disadvantages, such as small rotational speed, and an efficiency of only 20% without any mechanism to adapt production to a variable hydraulic head. Based on a prototype machine, Girard outlined a novel design: A mobile wheel attached to a vertical axis with "teeth" along its perimeter transmits the hydraulic energy to the nearby factory. The wheel is made of two concentric crowns composed of a cut-off ring from the top to the bottom. On the latter curved paddles are attached. The top paddles are stronger curved than those close to the bottom, and its diameter increases in the streamwise direction to reduce the water velocity at the turbine outlet thereby increasing the turbine efficiency. The second fixed part of the turbine looks like a vertical pipe mounted around the turbine axis, and conveys the water to the various paddles. The third also fixed turbine element is a conical roll and keeps the lower pivot. In 1857 Girard patented that so-called helical wheel turbine. Girard was hit by a bullet from a German enemy during the Franco-Prussian War which caused his premature death.
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Girard turbines worked normally unsubmerged, they had to be set at a level sufficiently high above the tailwater, therefore. Originally, his turbines had no draft tube to increase turbine efficiency. Only later, Girard realized this improvement of the "siphon turbine". He designed one machine with a hydraulic head of 180 m used for the compressed air supply during the tunneling of Gotthard in Switzerland in the 1870s. Girard invented also the "hydraulic railroad" gliding on skates: The train received speed by pressurized water ejected from distributors along the rail. Patented in 1853, that train was first presented in 1869 and was an attraction during the 1889 World Exposition in Paris.
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Alphandéry, M.-F. (1962). Girard. Dictionnaire des inventeurs français: 161-162. Seghers: Paris. Anonymous (1872). Girard. Jahrbuch der Erfindungen 8: 387.
Anonymous (1881). Girard-Turbine im Stauwasser. Maschinen-Constructeur 14: 8-11.
Girard, L.-D. (1855). Nouveau récepteur hydraulique, dit roue-hélice à axe horizontal, ou turbine sans directrices. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 40: 1025-1028. Girard, L.-D. (1863). Utilisation de la force vive de l'eau appliquée à l'industrie. Mallet: Paris.
Meissner, L. (1967). 100 Jahre Voith Wasserturbinen. Voith-Forschung 15(1): 1-15.
Payen, J. (1975). Girard, Louis-Dominique. Scienziati e tecnologi 2: 17. Mondadori: Milano. Suyreff, P. (1889). Girard, inventeur du chemin de fer glissant. Le Monde Illustré (2): 197-199. P

Hydraulicians in Europe 1800-2000 . 2013.

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  • Girard — may refer to:PlacesIn the United States: *Girard, Alabama *Girard, Georgia *Girard, Illinois *Girard, Kansas *Girard, Michigan *Girard, Minnesota *Girard, Ohio *Girard, Pennsylvania *Girard, Texas *Girard Township, Macoupin County, Illinois… …   Wikipedia

  • Girard — ist der Name mehrerer Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Girard (Georgia) Girard (Illinois) Girard (Kansas) Girard (Louisiana) Girard (Michigan) Girard (Ohio) Girard (Pennsylvania) Girard (Texas) Girard oder de Girard ist der Familienname von:… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Girard — Girard, OH U.S. city in Ohio Population (2000): 10902 Housing Units (2000): 4937 Land area (2000): 6.112646 sq. miles (15.831680 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.484550 sq. miles (1.254978 sq. km) Total area (2000): 6.597196 sq. miles (17.086658 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Girard — Girard, puede ser René Girard (1923 ), filósofo Noel Jules Girard (1816 1886), escultor Lugares en  Estados Unidos Girard (Pensilvania) Autores de nombres botánicos Frédéric de Girar …   Wikipedia Español

  • GIRARD (R.) — GIRARD RENÉ (1923 ) Chartiste de formation, René Girard a fait carrière aux États Unis: archiviste paléographe, il a été reçu docteur de l’université d’Indiana, puis est devenu professeur à la Johns Hopkins University. Parti de la critique… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Girard —   [ʒi raːr],    1) Albert, französischer Mathematiker, * Saint Mihiel (bei Commercy) 1595, ✝ Leiden 8. 12. 1632. In seinem Hauptwerk »Invention nouvelle en l algèbre« (1629) zeigt sich Girard als Schüler von F. Viète. Neben zahlentheoretischen… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Girard — (spr. schirār), 1) Stephen, Philanthrop, geb. 24. Mai 1750 in der Nähe von Bordeaux als Sohn eines Schiffskapitäns, gest. 26. Dez. 1831 in Philadelphia, erwarb sich in Amerika als Seefahrer und Kaufmann ein bedeutendes Vermögen. Als Privatmann… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • GIRARD (P. de) — GIRARD PHILIPPE DE (1775 1845) Inventeur et industriel français, né à Lourmarin (Provence) et mort à Paris. En 1804, Napoléon lance un concours, doté d’un prix de un million, pour une machine qui permettrait de filer convenablement le lin,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Girard, GA — U.S. town in Georgia Population (2000): 227 Housing Units (2000): 111 Land area (2000): 3.194104 sq. miles (8.272692 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.005424 sq. miles (0.014049 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.199528 sq. miles (8.286741 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Girard, IL — U.S. city in Illinois Population (2000): 2245 Housing Units (2000): 926 Land area (2000): 0.935865 sq. miles (2.423878 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.935865 sq. miles (2.423878 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Girard, KS — U.S. city in Kansas Population (2000): 2773 Housing Units (2000): 1219 Land area (2000): 1.897448 sq. miles (4.914367 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.007707 sq. miles (0.019960 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.905155 sq. miles (4.934327 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

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