KIND


KIND
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6.6.1801 Linda/D - 9.3.1873 Saarbrücken/D
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Carl G. Kind appears to have been a technically gifted boy working in mining areas of Saxony from age thirteen. As early as in 1823 he was involved in drilling experiments at the Borna Mine where he came into contact with the then famous experts. These tests were unsuccessful, however, and Kind left the state mining company. His first drilling close to Erfurt was made in 1831 to a depth of 230 m; it required large efforts because the pole mechanism broke more than 200 times. Drillings were advanced by hammering with a considerable effect on the mechanism. In 1834 the "glide scissors" were invented reducing impact forces of the hammer onto the drilling poles. Kind developed this mechanism and successfully drilled in Cessingen in 1837, and in Echternach in 1839. In 1842 he invented the so called Freifall which was patented in France. He succeeded to drill in 1846 to 736 m in Mondorf, Luxemburg, a world record for the following 25 years. A thermal spring led to the foundation of the Mondorf Bath, a location still profiting from Kind's work.
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The Freifall opened the way to deep drillings both in mining engineering and in groundwater prospect. It was one of the important technical inventions of the early 19th century that allowed progress in engineering. Further progress occurred during a drilling close to Forbach around 1850. It became evident that a borehole needs a watertight lining by a conduit advanced parallel with the drilling head. This so called Kind-Chaudron procedure was awarded at the 1867 World Exhibition in Paris with the Gold Medal and initiated all later developments in drilling, both in the horizontal and in the vertical directions. Henry Darcy (1803-1858) profited from Kind's knowledge when making drilling experiments for the water supply of his home town Dijon in the 1830s. Yet, he finally decided to use spring water for Dijon. Later, as a city engineer of Paris, he must have come into personal contact with Kind who drilled the fountain of Passy.
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Anonymous (1874). Carl Gotthelf Kind. Jahrbuch der Erfindungen 10: 402-403.
Anonymous (1956). La Compagnie des houillères de Stiring. Houillères du bassin de Lorraine: 18-20. Lahure: Paris. P
Conrad, H.G. (1977). Kind. Neue Deutsche Biographie 11: 613-614. Duncker&Humblot: Berlin.
Hoffmann, D. (1959). Kind und sein Werk. Zeitschrift Erdöl 75(10): 378-383. P
Kind, C.G. (1842). Anleitung zum Abteufen der Bohrlöcher nach den neuesten und bewährtesten Erfahrungen. Michaelis: Luxemburg. http://mapage.noos.fr/hubert.demory/puits.htm

Hydraulicians in Europe 1800-2000 . 2013.

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  • kind of — kind of, sort of 1. These expressions mean much the same, and share the same grammatical problems. (The issues raised here seem to occur less often in practice with the third alternative, type of.) There is less of a problem when kind of is… …   Modern English usage

  • Kind & Co. — Kind Co., Edelstahlwerk, KG Rechtsform KG Gründung 1888 Sitz Wiehl/ Bielstein Mitarbeiter 650 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • kind — Ⅰ. kind [1] ► NOUN 1) a class or type of people or things having similar characteristics. 2) character; nature. 3) each of the elements (bread and wine) of the Eucharist. ● in kind Cf. ↑in kind …   English terms dictionary

  • kind — [kīnd] n. [ME kynd < OE cynd, akin to Ger kind, child, ON kundr, son < IE * ĝṇti (> L natio, NATION) < base * ĝen : see GENUS] 1. Archaic a) origin b) nature c) manner; way …   English World dictionary

  • Kind — Kind, n. [OE. kinde, cunde, AS. cynd. See {Kind}, a.] 1. Nature; natural instinct or disposition. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] He knew by kind and by no other lore. Chaucer. [1913 Webster] Some of you, on pure instinct of nature, Are led by kind t… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Kind — (k[imac]nd), a. [Compar. {Kinder} (k[imac]nd [ e]r); superl. {Kindest}.] [AS. cynde, gecynde, natural, innate, prop. an old p. p. from the root of E. kin. See {Kin} kindred.] 1. Characteristic of the species; belonging to one s nature; natural;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • kind — n 1: a particular type, category, or class properties of like kind see also like kind exchange 2 a: an unconverted form a partition of property in kind; broadly: a form other than money forbid a bribe in cash or in kind …   Law dictionary

  • Kind. — Kind.   Im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch bezeichnet der Begriff Kind entweder, im engeren Sinn, den Nachkommen einer Person oder aber, im weiteren Sinn, den Menschen bis zum Eintritt ins Jugendalter. Der dabei durchlaufene Zeitraum, die Kindheit,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • kind — n *type, sort, stripe, kidney, ilk, description, nature, character kind adj Kind, kindly, benign, benignant mean having or exhibiting a nature that is gentle, considerate, and inclined to benevolent or beneficent actions and are comparable… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • kind — [kaɪnd] noun COMMERCE ( a) payment/​benefit in kind a method of paying someone by giving goods or services instead of money: • The company agreed that the loan should be settled by payment in kind. • A workplace nursery is not regarded as a… …   Financial and business terms

  • Kind — can mean:* The type of types in a type system in type theory * Natural kind, in philosophy a grouping of things which is a natural grouping, not an artificial one. * KIND is the ICAO designation for Indianapolis International Airport * Created… …   Wikipedia

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