SMEATON


SMEATON
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8.6.1724 Austhorpe/UK - 28.10.1792 Austhorpe/UK
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John Smeaton was taken into apprenticeship by a designer of scientific instruments in London. From 1752, Smeaton submitted three papers to the Royal Society and there discussed his developments of the nautical compass, a pneumatic pump and the construction of a novel pulley. He concluded his education with a long trip to the Netherlands, where he became aware of the impressive canals for inland navigation. Upon returning to England, Smeaton was asked to design the lighthouse of Eddystone located in the Canal of Manica which is known for its storms. The tower made from heavy stones resisted all storms and remained in use until 1877. The 1759 paper on the motive power of water and wind for machinery was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society.
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Smeaton's advice was frequently sought in regard to important engineering projects, including the constructions of the Forth and Clyde Canal, the drainage of the Fens, the design of harbors and the erection of bridges. Many of the schemes he drew up were not carried out on account of the general lack of capital. He was also employed in designing numerous waterwheels, pumps and other mechanical appliances and developed techniques to measure the efficiency of rotary machines. His research into waterwheels made it clear that an overshot arrangement is more efficient than an undershot wheel. His pupils included canal engineers James Brindley (1716-1772) and William Jessop (1745-1814) and the engineer Benjamin Latrobe. Smeaton founded the Society of Civil Engineers in 1771; after his death, the Society was renamed the Smeatonian Society and was a forerunner of the present Institution of Civil Engineers established in 1818.
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Anonymous (1937). John Smeaton. Trans. Newcomen Society 17. Frontispiece. P
Burton, A. (1981). John Smeaton. The canal builders: 87. David&Charles: London. P
Derry, T.K. (1975). Smeaton, John. Scienziati e tecnologi 3: 119-121. Mondadori: Milano. P
Smeaton, J. (1754). An account of some experiments upon a machine for measuring the way of a ship at sea. Phil. Trans. 48: 532-546.
Smeaton, J. (1755). John Smeaton's diary of his journey to the Low Countries, 1755. Courier: Leamington Spa.
Smeaton, J. (1759). An experimental inquiry concerning the natural powers of water and wind to turn mills and other machines depending on circular motion. Phil. Trans. 51: 100-174.
Smeaton, J. (1765). Plan of Bristol Key, with a projection of the sluices and canal for floating the shipping and Severn trows. London.

Hydraulicians in Europe 1800-2000 . 2013.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Smeaton — may refer to:* Smeaton, East Lothian, a village and estate in Scotland * Smeaton, Victoria, an Australian town * Smeaton (surname), people with the surname Smeaton ee also* Great Smeaton, an English village * Little Smeaton, an English village …   Wikipedia

  • Smeaton — (spr. Smihin), John, geb. 1724 in Ästhorpe bei Bends, studirte erst die Rechte u. dann industrielle Wissenschaften; seine erste Bemühung war eine Maschine zu erfinden, um die Strecke zu messen, welche ein Schiff auf der See zurücklegte. 1759… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Smeaton —   [ smiːtn], John, britischer Ingenieur, * Austhorpe Lodge (bei Leeds) 8. 6. 1724, ✝ ebenda 28. 10. 1792; errichtete 1756 59 den Eddystone Leuchtturm, stellte experimentelle Untersuchungen an Wasser und Windrädern an und verbesserte seit 1767 die …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Smeaton — John Smeaton (* 8. Juni 1724 in Austhorpe bei Leeds; † 28. Oktober 1792) war ein Ingenieur und gilt als der Vater des Bauingenieurwesens. Portrait von John Smeaton, im Hintergrund der Eddystone Leuchtturm. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Smeaton — This surname, of English and Scottish origin, is a locational name from any of the various places, notably Smeaton near Edinburgh and in North and West Yorkshire, or Smeeton in Leicestershire, deriving from the Olde English pre 7th Century smioa …   Surnames reference

  • Smeaton — /smeet n/, n. John 1724 92, English engineer. * * * …   Universalium

  • Smeaton — /smeet n/, n. John 1724 92, English engineer …   Useful english dictionary

  • Smeaton, East Lothian — Smeaton is a village and country estate in East Lothian, Scotland. It is off the B1407, near East Linton, and very close to Prestonkirk Parish Church as well as the National Trust for Scotland properties Preston Mill and Phantassie Doocot.The… …   Wikipedia

  • Smeaton (surname) — Smeaton is a surname, and may refer to:* Professor Alan Smeaton, Irish author and academic * Bruce Smeaton, Australian composer * Cooper Smeaton, Canadian professional ice hockey referee and coach * John Smeaton (1724 – 1792), English civil… …   Wikipedia

  • Smeaton, Saskatchewan — is the community at the start of the Hanson Lake Road, which ends at Creighton, Saskatchewan (neighbouring community: Flin Flon, Manitoba …   Wikipedia


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